Today’s article is designed primarily for those who are going to take the IELTS Academic. But students who are preparing for TOEFL, Cambridge exams, or just those who want to master the ability to put their thoughts on paper as clearly as possible, will undoubtedly find interesting tips too.
To begin with, there are two quality indicators of written text that are highly valued, these are cohesion and coherence. The English-Russian Dictionary gives the following translations of these words:
Cohesion – unity, coherence, cohesion.
Coherence – logicality, consistency, validity.
What is the difference between the unity of the text and its coherence at first glance can not be quite clear, so let’s analyze in more detail.
Cohesion is the actual, external cohesion of the text. By this we mean the use of such expressions as however, and, because, etc., the use of synonyms or the replacement of certain nouns with pronouns, etc.
Coherence – is the internal logic of the text, the presentation of essayup review in such a way that they are most understandable to the reader. It is fair to say that cohesion is considered a more subjective concept, whereas coherence is the opposite. Indeed, what seems coherent to me may not be so to another person. Nevertheless, you have to be careful with this on the exam. If your goal is to get the best score possible, try to do without any confusing logic that only you can understand. 🙂
What is interesting is that you don’t necessarily need to have a good text. Let’s look at an example:
I love going to the cinema. The cinema is also in the Puskinska street. This street is always beautiful in spring. It is my favourite season. However, this year was colder than the last one. – I like going to the movies. The cinema is also on Puskinskaya street. That street is always beautiful in the spring. It’s my favourite time of year. Although, this year was colder than last year.
On the surface, this text looks coherent: the words also and however are used, synonyms and pronouns are used. However, it makes absolutely no sense at all. It is a perfect illustration of the fact that a person without a coherence is like a beautiful person with an empty soul. 🙂
But it’s great if a smart person also looks good, isn’t it? Exactly the same is the case with cohesion and coherence. They are, of course, interrelated, because by using synonyms, appropriate conjunctions, prepositions, etc. we make the text more understandable to the reader.
Therefore further in our article we will talk about one of the tricks of the external organization of the text in a logical structure – the use of linking words, that is words that help us to combine ideas into a coherent whole. But remember that we are only talking about the envelope of the text. These words will make your text more cohesive, but do not forget to make sure that it is also coherent.
So, to make smooth transitions between different ideas in your text, while showing that they all relate directly to the topic of your essay, you’ll need the help of conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbials.
A few words about the differences among these three.
Conjunction – This is a way of gluing two sentences together without creating a dependency between them.
International tourism is becoming very popular and this certainly has a lot of benefits. – International tourism is becoming very popular, and this certainly has a lot of benefits.
Preposition, on the contrary, forms such a dependence.
In spite of bringing money into the local economy, international tourism can also cause some irreversible changes. – Regardless of (what?) bringing money into the local economy, international tourism can cause some irreversible changes.
Adverbial. First, it should be noted that adverbs and adverbials are not exactly identical. Adverb is an adverb, a part of speech, which in a certain way characterizes an action (verb) and answers the questions “how?”, “when?”, “from where?”, “where?”, “why?”. In English they are formed in most cases by adding the ending -ly to the adjective (beautifully, slowly). Adverbials is a broader term, because by it we mean different syntactic units (word combinations, if you will), which perform the function of adverbs, i.e. describing an action. For example, We woke up at eight o’clock. In this case, at eight o’clock is adverbial because it tells us when the action occurred.